Charles Darwin performed experiments on plant movements with his seventh child, Francis Darwin, which they wrote up as joint authors in 1880 (Francis was a young man at the time). Every year, thousands of children and budding scientists repeat these experiments:
- Shine a light on a plant from just one source, and observe as plants orientate their growth to ‘face’ the light.
- Adorn growing shoots with a ‘cap’ that is impermeable to light and observe as they grow straight, even as light hits the open stem.
The tip of the plant senses the direction of the light, and this information is transmitted to the growing stem to direct growth behaviour. That transmission is performed by auxins, the first of which was isolated in the 1930s.
Continue reading “Auxins: messengers of light”
Ah, the smell of coffee brewing, of tea steaming, hot chocolate beckoning on a cold winter’s day… the fizzy kick of Coca-Cola on a long journey. It’s wonderful, really. The taste, feel and cultural significance of each of these drinks may differ, but they all share one key ingredient: caffeine. Caffeine is the most commonly used mood-altering drug for humans: it wakes us up, prepares our minds for work, keeps us alert (we think) and provides a shared experience during informal interactions.
Continue reading “Caffeine: protector of plants”
The first technological innovation to radically change human society was agriculture. The ability to cultivate – rather than hunt or pick – food had a profound change on everything from our immune system to our societal structures. It encouraged specialisation, favoured robust, complex inter-generational knowledge transmission and enabled the explosive growth of this bipedal ape.
Continue reading “4th genome of Christmas: the hexaploid bread wheat genome”